schöne Welt

Donnerstag, September 22, 2005

跑者的交叉訓練

Whether you race or not, cross-training is extremely important for all runners. It builds your "non-running" muscles and balances muscle groups. It boosts cardiovascular fitness and adds variety to a routine. Cross-training can help prevent injury and most important, it can improve your running performance.
The question is how to incorporate cross-training into your routine. That depends on your goals and interests. To help you choose what's right, we've assembled a list of the most popular cross-training activities from a runners' perspective. Cycling & Spinning Cycling and spinning are two of the most common cross-training activities for runners. Biking can work your leg muscles even harder than uphill running, but without the hard impact. With spinning classes, typically, instructors will crank up resistance to simulate tough uphill rides, or use one-minute 'burns' spent out of the saddle to condition the quads (a muscle group that is weak in many runners who avoid cross-training). It should be noted these hard spinning sessions are not meant as a rest day. If you want to use spinning as a recovery session, check with the instructor for an appropriate class.
Swimming When it comes to cross-training, some runners swear by swimming. It provides an excellent aero workout, making it a great option for marathoners and injured runners. Swimming primarily builds upper body strength. So while running hard two days in a row isn't advisable, it's okay to swim hard the day after an intense run -- because you're working completely different muscle groups.
Elliptical trainer This machine has key advantages for runners, especially when compared against indoor treadmills and stairstepping machines. Because the elliptical trainer closely mimics the natural foot motion of jogging but doesn't require lifting the foot, its motion is completely fluid and non-jarring. This makes it a great cross-training choice for injured runners. What's more, the elliptical trainer works your arms and legs together. This makes the exercise more intense in a shorter time span, while also boosting overall strength in a way running doesn't. To get the most out of an elliptical workout, spend 1/4 of the time going backwards (running backwards) to work the front of the legs.
Rowing Rowing is a cross-training classic. For runners looking to balance their core area with the strength they have earned in their legs, this is a great choice. Rowing works your arms, shoulders, back, and more than anything—your abdomen. Whether you're rowing indoors or out on a lake in summer, the benefits can be dramatic. The one thing to practice if you're new to rowing is form. Have a qualified trainer check that your posture is correct to maximize the workout.
Speedwalking Not too long ago runners tried to avoid walking. Yet now it has become an integral part of marathon training for some runners. That's because speedwalking, or "fitness walking", works your running muscles without as much impact. But a word of caution: just because you can run 10 miles, don't think you can speedwalk as far right off the bat. While the two activities have obvious similarities, they do use some muscles differently. Your butt and hips may get quite sore after 5 or 10 miles, so you'll want to ease into distance speedwalking.
Yoga & PilatesYoga is one of the most dynamic cross-training activities. That's because it can be used to build all around body strength, while also stretching and conditioning "running" muscles. Yoga improves balance, increases range of motion, and some use it as a way to relax the day after a long run. Many runners also like Pilates, a similar physical and mental conditioning program focused on improving flexibility and strength—without building bulk. Pilates is a great way to improve posture, lengthen muscles, and develop core abdominal and back strength—all integral to running performance.
Step Aerobics & Fitness DanceOne of the most basic daily movements makes a great cross-training exercise. Step aerobics delivers a heart-pumping lower body workout that is much easier on joints than running. Class instructors will teach the basic moves and then put them together in a choreographed sequence. But the beauty of it is, if you know the simple moves, you can do this kind of cross-training almost anywhere. Fitness Dance, growing in popularity, takes a similar approach. Instructors teach moves one-by-one and then put them all together in one dance routine. The result is a cardio workout that raises heart rates to that of an intense run, but without the harsh impact on knees, ankles and joints.
Strength Training / Weight LiftingStrength training is doing exercise that uses your own body weight for resistance (such as pushups and sit-ups). Weight training uses weights for resistance (such as the shoulder press or leg curls). Some studies have shown that strength and weight training can improve running economy, which means running faster with the same oxygen uptake. In high level runners, this can mean clipping valuable seconds or minutes off 10K times. For the majority of casual runners, the added strength can have the same effect, and help create a more enjoyable running experience.
Cross Country Skiing & SkatingSimilar to the elliptical machine, cross-country skiing is another complete body workout for runners—without the hard impact. It incorporates upper body, lower body and core strengthening with an intense aerobic workout. Skating – both on rubber and on blades – is another great cross-training activity because it works lateral muscles, which help trail runners improve performance.
Keep it FunBefore starting cross-training, first assess your goals, and start slow. Try to find a group or class to learn more about the sport or activity. Do your research. But above all, have fun. Ultimately, these are activities meant to boost your running performance, and you'll be far more likely to stick with it if it's something you genuinely enjoy.

Dienstag, August 30, 2005

肌力相關

健美理論中用RM表示某個負荷量能連續做的最高重復次數。比如,練習者對一個重量只能連續舉起5次,則該重量就是5RM。只能竭盡全力舉起一次的重量(1RM)就是最大肌力。 研究表明: 1- 5RM的負荷訓練能使肌肉增粗,發展力量和速度; 6-10RM的負荷訓練能使肌肉粗大,力量速度提高,但耐力增長不明顯;10-15RM的負荷訓練肌纖維增粗不明顯,但力量、速度、耐力均有長進; 30RM的負荷訓練肌肉內毛細血管增多,耐久力提高,但力量、速度提高不明顯。 可見,5-10RM的負荷重量適用於增大肌肉體積的健美訓練 我所想要聲明的論點在於RM(反覆數)的觀念,就是造成肌肥大的觀念這是我所說的訓練方式不同 當然,肌肥大、肌力、肌耐力都是息息相關、相輔相成的沒有基本的肌耐力,肌力便會有一定的瓶頸

Samstag, Juni 18, 2005

正確對待運動疲勞


正確對待運動疲勞
2005/06/16
作者: 張坤進(膠州二中)
  對運動員來說,參加訓練或比賽是常有的事。當訓練和比賽負荷超過於機體承受的能力,而產生的暫時的生理機能減退現象,是運動員為了提高運動成績而進行大運動量、大強度訓練所引起的機體機能的變化。這就是經常所說的運動性疲勞。
  「沒有疲勞就沒有訓練,疲勞是檢查訓練效果的一個標誌。」所以產生疲勞是訓練的正常反應。疲勞大體分肌肉疲勞、內臟疲勞、神經疲勞。疲勞的程度一般可以通過運動者的自我感覺和某些外部表現來判斷。產生疲勞後,一般來說,輕度疲勞,身體會迅速恢復;中度疲勞則需要較好地調整和休息;重度疲勞要想儘快使身體的各項生理指標恢復到原水平或要做到超量恢復。因此,作為一名教練除了在思想上、生活上關心運動員之外,主要應把重點放在不同的訓練階段,把訓練手段和恢復手段結合起來。尤其對運動員來講,疲勞在很大程度上和心理因素有關。為此,要根據具體對象的具體情況採用各種不同的恢復手段,以加速恢復過程,恢復方法是多方面的。現把我結合理論學習,在實踐中得到的一點體會,簡述如下:
一、科學地安排大小訓練週期,負荷的變化,廣泛地運用各種訓練手段、訓練條件、器材和場地。建立運動員正確的生活節奏和訓練節奏,合理安排完整的生活制度,是消除疲勞的重要方法。
  人的一切活動都是在大腦皮層支配下進行的,養成每天正確的節奏會在大腦皮層中形成「運動定型」,使得機體的活動「自動化」和「節省化」,減輕機體生理負擔,有利於運動訓練成績的提高,同時有利於疲勞的消除。生活中克服吸煙和喝酒的不良嗜好,保持良好的生理機能,促進運動訓練,防止運動疲勞的產生。
二、每次訓練課達到最佳效果,運動後並進行合理的整理活動,是消除疲勞的一種積極的手段。
  在運動訓練和比賽之後,立即靜坐、靜臥效果不好。實踐證明:採用慢跑作整理活動,血乳酸消除的速度要比靜止休息時快一倍,因此慢跑或有一定速度的步行,是整理活動的共同內容且不可缺少。特別是在整理活動中做些肌肉伸展性練習,有助於緩解肌肉纖維痙攣,改善肌肉血液循環,減輕肌肉酸痛和僵硬程度,加速乳酸的消除,達到疲勞的迅速消除。
三、合理營養是消除疲勞或提高抗疲勞能力的重要手段。
  運動中產生疲勞的重要因素之一,就是能量供應不足。疲勞時,注意補充能量和維生素,尤其是糖、維生素C及B1,夏季或出汗較多時,應補充鹽分與水。食品應富有營養和易於消化,並儘量多吃些新鮮蔬菜、水果等鹼性食物,但不同性質的運動項目需要不同營養。速度性的項目應含較多易吸收的糖、維生素B1和維生素C較多的蛋白質和磷;耐力性的項目要多供給糖以增加糖元儲備,同時還要增加維生素B1、維生素C和磷;力量性的項目需要增加蛋白質和維生素B2,因此在運動中適時地補充有關營養物質,既能提高身體的抗疲勞能力,又能幫助運動疲勞的消除。
四、心理學恢復手段是消除疲勞的重要方法。
  心理恢復主要是意念活動,通過一定的套語暗示進行導引,使肌肉放鬆,心理平靜。從而調節植物性神經系統的機能,然後再運用帶有一定願望的套語進行自我動員。如暗示性的睡眠休息、肌肉鬆弛、心理調節訓練。實踐證明,採用上述方法能促進身體疲勞的儘快消除,加快身體的恢復過程。另外,舒適幽雅的環境聽音樂等可以減弱田徑訓練的枯燥單調刺激消除疲勞。
五、睡眠是人體最好的休息,是消除疲勞最有效的途徑。
  睡眠是人在二十四小時內發生的週期性需求,一定時間的睡眠對消除疲勞是必不可少的,而且必須考慮足夠的睡眠時間和深度。運動員平時訓練期間如每天達到八小時半的睡眠,在大運動量和比賽期間,睡眠時間適當延長到10小時,如果全天都安排訓練,中午適當午睡約1~2小時,自我感覺最好。第一、就寢前儘量使精神狀態趨於平靜;第二、避免外界刺激;第三、室內空氣保持新鮮;第四、就寢前應洗腳,使大腦得以休息,有助於儘快入睡。使疲勞能快速消除。
六、物理療法,特別是按摩,可以促進血液循環,加速疲勞消除及機能的恢復。
  按摩是有效的恢復手段。負擔量最大的部位,應是按摩的重點,肌肉部位以揉捏為主,交替使用按壓、抖動、扣打等手法,在肌肉發達的部位可用肘頂、腳踩。關節部位不僅是運動的著力點,也是運動的樞紐。應全面進行,以擦摩為主,穿插使用按壓、搓和遠拉。按摩應先全身後局部,全身性按摩一般取俯臥位。根據專項不同,如某部運動負擔過重,需重點按摩,應在全身按摩之後再進行。在按摩肢體時,先按摩大肌肉群後按摩小肌肉群。如按摩下肢,先按摩大腿肌肉後按摩小腿肌肉,以提高肌肉韌帶的工作能力,加速疲勞時的肌僵硬緊縮和酸脹痛的代謝產物的排除,改善血液循環和心臟收縮功能。
  溫水浴也是理療的一種方法,是最方便最快的消除疲勞的方法之一。有溫度、水壓的要求,水溫以42度C加減4度C最適宜,時間一般為10 ~ 15分鐘,最長不超過20分鐘。每天不超過兩次,入浴時間長、次數過頻,將會因消耗能量而更加疲勞。
七、藥物對疲勞的消除也有較好效果。
  使用中藥,如黃芪、刺五加、參三七等,都是有調節中樞神經系統的功能,擴張冠狀動脈和補氣壯筋的作用,對促進疲勞的消除有較好的效果。對促進疲勞很明顯,時間又長的運動員也可用維生素B12、三磷酸腺苷等。
  總之,在運動中加強醫務監督、及時瞭解運動員的身體狀況、掌握其疲勞程度,對消除疲勞,提高運動成績,有著重要的作用。因此,我們體育教師在組織學生進行課餘訓練時,一定要注意到良好的恢復訓練,使訓練更加科學更有實效。
參考文獻:
運動醫學編寫組,運動醫學,人民體育出版社,95年6月
王召運,維生素與運動訓練,中國田徑協會出版社,1998年2月
(美)梅倫斯‧赫特凱佩,耐力練習的營養和恢復,中國田徑協會出版社,1997年9月
新聞來源:SportsNT 運動神網

Freitag, Juni 03, 2005

[公告]Jenny's sky

[公告] Jenny 's sky 6/2/05 11:20:13 am對生活書寫與思考的筆始終停不下愛好自由的人 終於飛向藍天擁抱最自由的空氣 因為鄉村的不穩與朋友的推薦 Jenny的生活省思與知識布落格已遷至自由無限的"天空" 歡迎舊雨新知,不吝指教,一直以來為Jenny 打氣,鼓勵默默支持的版友,同學,朋友,長輩們..真的謝謝了!! (鞠躬) 往後天空和鄉村還是儘量同步呈現生活心得 而schoene Welt 變成完全的體育知識倉庫 知識 blog預訂在八月左右,Jenny 的學位論文付梓後開張,在知識的天空泅泳,開展與探索!!Jenny 自由的天空:http://blog.webs-tv.net/jennyc422

Samstag, Mai 28, 2005

drei klar Lagen

各位有想我嗎? 這次貼文是要貼一個重要的心得感想, 因為schöne Welt 總是我存放重要資訊和文章的地方!! (如果我有的話?!我的) 癢沐者可要一百萬個注意了, 因為本來我向來都只問緣分, 不談什麼條件不條件的, 後來發現, 我必須要給自己在人生路上有三個提醒, 那就是, (如果我有) 一個他, 那他是誰? Wer sind sie? Sie muss sind.... 1.好/溫和的脾氣 (草食動物)
2.真正開放/自由的心靈 (絕非守舊的保守主義分子/進化的保守主義
也不行)-- 給我尊重,空間和自由
3.是男的 Ist es klar?? *^^*

Dienstag, Mai 24, 2005

再相逢

TO DEAR ALL: 我最常用也是最喜歡使用的個人生活記事網站: 台灣鄉村, 最近發生無法登入的情形, 而Jenny 的論文寫作也到了最後中的最後一刻,因此我決定和各位讀者相約暑期在新的知識主題blog相見( 網址會公佈在此與設法公佈在原鄉村站 ),畢業後,千頭萬緒,必須短期內重整、決定、訂定新計劃及再度上路出發,當然也要好好地讓身心好好休息一小段日子,慰勞自己的辛勞,謝謝各位讀者對小妺的關懷,暫別是為了下一次的聚首,期待儘快呈現給大家,畢業後元氣滿滿和開始探索新知主題的全新自己 ^^

Sonntag, Mai 22, 2005

My Pace

談完了My Tempo之後, 發覺人生在世, 應該找到my pace, 按自己的步調去走因為終其一生, 我發現周遭的人永遠會拿無聊透頂的"典型"問題來(質)問你, 這些問題, 有時候可愛溫暖地像純粹的關心,有時候例行如常地像儀式, 有時候侵犯惡劣地像挑釁..比如說當你還沒入學的時候,別人就會問你, 什麼時候考試? 考得上嗎?當你已經是學生的時候, 別人就問你, 什麼時候畢業? 什麼時候寫完論文?當你畢業了以後, 別人就問你? 你要找工作嗎? 你要出國嗎? 什麼時候出國?當你還在三十以前的人生顛峰, 你有女/男朋友嗎? 什麼時候結婚?當你結婚了, 他們問你, 什麼時候要生小孩?當你有小孩了, 他們問, 你的小孩要讀什麼學校,有沒有要去雙語幼稚園? ........這些問題, 看似重要, 實則根本是bullshit人們有問不完的典型問題, 不停地質問別人,自己也不停為這些nonsense所困擾, 倍感壓力,思想精力關切和這些廢言廢語糾纏在一起終其一生不得自由 最後在意得連自己也瑣碎煩惱得變得和這些垃圾問題一樣地垃圾我可能會很溫和有禮地回答這些空洞的問題, 但是真正答案永遠只會在我的心中,我最頂級的那台PDA: 我的想法裡, because that is my own pace..世界要的不過是一套像7-11一樣 二十四小時運作如常的Q & A , 人們真正想聽的,其實不是你心裡真正的想法, 而是讓他們感到的安心的回答, 這樣他們才相信地球自轉如昔, 太陽仍然東昇西落..第三次世界大戰還沒有爆發.. 真是無聊透頂的世界